By Cristina de Canals, Grup Vilar Riba
One of the main reasons for foreign companies deciding to set up a Spanish subsidiary is because it allows for clear separation of the assets of the mother company from those of the subsidiary. However, most of the directors of Spanish subsidiaries are not aware of what is involved in their position and the legal consequences of misconduct, which can be very serious for them and for their assets.
By Jessica E. Murphy, Mirick, O’Connell, DeMallie & Lougee, LLP
In the current economy, it is commonplace to execute and exchange contracts entirely electronically. Businesses that want to operate in this electronic universe need to understand how to create enforceable electronic contracts.
By Marzanna Sobaniec, Penteris
The most significant amendment to the Polish Code of Civil Procedure in 30 years entered into force 7 November 2019. As of 7 November 2019, entrepreneurs in Poland can expect faster case processing and a simplified procedure. Court disputes between entrepreneurs will be heard according to so-called separate commercial proceedings as well as an expanded catalogue of commercial cases.
By Matteo Zanotelli, SLT Strategy Legal Tax
It is well known that the insolvency declaration of one party affects deeply the course of a civil/commercial proceeding. Each state provides specific rules on the matter, but, as far as the European Union is concerned, EU Regulation n. 848/2015 on cross-border insolvency governs the effects of the opening of an insolvency proceeding across the EU member states.
By Natalia Pynnikova, KBK Accounting
Procedures for recognition of foreign court decisions and the possibility of such recognition and execution depend entirely on who made the decision: an arbitration court or a state court.
By Dr Christian Dittert, LUTZ | ABEL Rechtsanwalts PartG mbB
In urgent matters, civil procedural law allows for preliminary injunctions. It is a peculiarity of German law that a preliminary injunction must be formally served on the opposing party. Such formal service of documents at the instigation of a party can be mainly affected either by instruction of a courtappointed enforcement offcer to serve the documents or by formal service from one attorney on another attorney (the latter only if both parties are represented by attorneys). It is important that, according to Sec. 929 Para. 2 ZPO, such formal service must be duly performed within a month after the preliminary court decision has been issued. Without service in time, the opposing party is entitled to bring a motion to set aside the preliminary injunction.
By Oltion Kaçani, Gjika & Associates Attorneys at Law
Recent developments and ongoing changes in civil and commercial relations should necessarily be reflected in legislation, in particular in the procedural legislation. Judicial procedures for adjudicating cases of every nature are important, as they must guarantee to all citizens effective access, fair trial and, within a reasonable time, independent and impartial tribunal and other guarantees stipulated by Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights.
By Yasmine Misuraca, Prager Metis International LLC
As long as greed exists, so will corruption. To combat corruption, the US enacted the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). Its provisions prohibit offering, authorising, or making payments of money or anything of value to influence the decision making of foreign government offcials to obtain or retain business.
By Jordi Pallarès, Grup Vilar Riba
Making or accepting presents in the context of commercial relationships has traditionally been a culturally accepted practice in Spain. Inviting potential clients to dine out, or inviting them to watch a football match, or sending them a bottle of wine at Christmas, are practices in which companies have invested part of their budgets.
By Wolfgang Fürnschuss, Advocatur Seeger, Frick & Partner AG
Liechtenstein introduced its foundation law in 1926, when the country’s extensive Persons and Companies Act came into effect. This important piece of legislation set the scene for the country progressing from a mainly agricultural state to a wealthy economy offering a wide array of financial services.